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The HPV ability to bind the spermatozoa in two distinct sites of the equatorial region through sydecan-1 a proteoglycan expressed almost exclusively in the equatorial region of sperm head can explain the sperm ability to carry viral genome into fertilized oocytes and blastocysts [ 19212225 ].
Hence, HPV infection is closely related to male infertility which will decrease sperm PR and morphology.
Cross-infection between members of a couple makes HPV chronic and difficult to treat.
All the considered studies have important limits which should not be underestimated, linked to the in vitro artificial and experimental conditions.
However, in vitro evidences showed that HPV infected spermatozoa maintains the ability to fertilize oocytes and to express viral genome in the product of conception.
One study showed that infertile couples with HPV infection have a higher rate of pregnancy loss than do couples without HPV infection during implementation of assisted reproduction technology.
Male vaccination could represent also a reliable option for couples undergoing ART cycles because fertility of female partner results yet partially compromised:
Among subjects in the case group, were HPV-positive.
In absence of effective and safety sperm washing procedures able to eliminate the infection, HPV male vaccination should be considered as a possible strategy for the prevention of HPV semen impairment and for the improvement of couple fertility outcomes [ 43046485051 ], Alternate dna hpv sperm men testing.
Evidences reported by Chan et al.