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However, use of sperm centrifugation is detrimental to the sperm viability and elicits production of reactive oxygen species.
Egg cells are often fertilized by sperm which would have low chance of fertilizing it in natural conditions.
New flow-cytometry based techniques such as YO-PRO staining can discriminate apoptotic and dead spermatozoa from the viable ones.
This selection is largely circumvented in case of in-vitro fertilization which leads to higher incidence of birth defects associated with assisted reproductive techniques.
That is to say, there will always be some "male" sperm among the "female" sperm and vice versa.
If applied large-scale, it has a potential to elicit a sex-ratio imbalance.
The sperm is selected not only by its highest motility but also by other factors such as DNA integrityproduction of reactive oxygen species and viability.
Utilizing artificial insemination with sorted sperm is seen as a way to create an optimal ratio of male and female calves to increase dairy milk production.
Additionally, there is ongoing debate about using sperm sorting for choosing the child's sex.